Details About Generic Salt ::  Aminophy

Main Medicine Class:: Bronchodilator,xanthine derivative   

(am-in-AHF-ih-lin)
Phyllocontin, Truphylline,  Jaa-Aminophylline, Phyllocontin, Phyllocontin-350
Class: Bronchodilator/xanthine derivative

 

Drugs Class ::

 Action Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle and pulmonary blood vessels; stimulates central respiratory drive; increases diaphragmatic contractility.

Indications for Drugs ::

 Indications Prevention or treatment of reversible bronchospasm associated with asthma or COPD. Unlabeled use(s): Treatment of apnea and bradycardia of prematurity.

Drug Dose ::

 Route/Dosage

Dosage is calculated on basis of lean body weight.

ORAL/RECTAL

Dose is determined by percentage of theophylline content in aminophylline salt. Aminophylline is 79% theophylline.

Loading Dose

ADULTS & CHILDREN: PO/PR 5 mg/kg.

Maintenance Dose

HEALTHY NONSMOKERS: PO/PR 3 mg/kg q 8 hr. ELDERLY & PATIENTS WITH COR PULMONALE: 2 mg/kg q 8 hr. PATIENTS WITH CHF: 1 to 2 mg/kg q 12 hr. CHILDREN 9 TO 16 YR & YOUNG ADULT SMOKERS: 3 mg/kg q 6 hr. CHILDREN 1 TO 9 YR: 4 mg/kg q 6 hr.

PARENTERAL

Loading Dose

ADULTS &CHILDREN NOT RECEIVING THEOPHYLLINE: IV 6 mg/kg. ADULTS & CHILDREN RECEIVING THEOPHYLLINE: IV 0.6 to 3.1 mg/kg.

Maintenance Dose

HEALTHY NONSMOKERS: IV 0.5 to 0.7 mg/kg/hr. ELDERLY & PATIENTS WITH COR PULMONALE: IV 0.3 to 0.6 mg/kg/hr. PATIENTS WITH CHF: IV 0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg/hr. CHILDREN 9 TO 16 YR &YOUNG ADULT SMOKERS: IV 0.8 to 1 mg/kg/hr. CHILDREN 1 TO 9 YR: IV 1 to 1.2 mg/kg/hr. NEONATES-INFANTS < 6 MO: Not recommended. Weigh benefits against risks. INFANTS 26 TO 52 WK: Divide into q 6 hr dosing. INFANTS < 26 WK: Divide into q 8 hr dosing. INFANTS 6 TO 52 WK: = 24 hr dosage (mg). PREMATURE INFANTS > 4 Days Postnatal: IV 1.5 mg/kg q 12 hr. PREMATURE INFANTS < 24 DAYS POSTNATAL: IV 1 mg/kg q 12 hr.

Contraindication ::

 Contraindications Hypersensitivity to xanthines (eg, caffeine, theobromine) or ethylenediamine; peptic ulcer; seizure disorders not treated with medication. Aminophylline suppositories are contraindicated in presence of irritation or infection of rectum or lower colon.

Drug Precautions ::

 Precautions

Pregnancy: Category C. Lactation: Excreted in breast milk. Children: Safety and efficacy not established in children < 1 yr. Cardiac effects: Aminophylline may cause or worsen preexisting arrhythmias. GI effects: Aminophylline may cause or worsen preexisting ulcers or gastroesophageal reflux. Status asthmaticus: In this medical emergency parenteral medication and close monitoring in intensive care unit are recommended. Toxicity: Patients with liver impairment or cardiac failure and those > 55 yr are at greatest risk.

PATIENT CARE CONSIDERATIONS


Drug Side Effects ::

 Adverse Reactions

CV: Palpitations; tachycardia; hypotension; arrhythmias. CNS: Irritability; headache; insomnia; muscle twitching; seizures. GI: Nausea; vomiting; anorexia, diarrhea; gastroesophageal reflux; epigastric pain. GU: Proteinuria; diuresis. RESP: Tachypnea; respiratory arrest. OTHER: Fever; flushing; hyperglycemia; inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion; sensitivity reactions (exfoliative dermatitis and urticaria).

Drug Mode of Action ::  

 Action Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle and pulmonary blood vessels; stimulates central respiratory drive; increases diaphragmatic contractility.

Drug Interactions ::

 Interactions

Allopurinol, nonselective betablockers, calcium channel blockers, cimetidine, oral contraceptives, corticosteroids, disulfiram, ephedrine, influenza virus vaccine, interferon, macrolide antibiotics, mexiletine, quinolone antibiotics, thyroid hormones: May increase aminophylline levels. Aminoglutethimide, barbiturates, hydantoins, ketoconazole, rifampin, smoking (tobacco and marijuana), sulfinpyrazone, sympathomimetics: May decrease aminophylline levels. Benzodiazepines, propofol: Aminophylline may antagonize sedative effects. Beta-agonists: Effects of both drugs may be antagonized. Carbamazepine, isoniazid, loop diuretics: May increase or decrease aminophylline levels. Food: Sustained-released medications are taken on empty stomach to avoid rapid drug release. Low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet may increase aminophylline levels. Charcoal-broiled foods or high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet may decrease aminophylline levels. Halothane: May cause catecholamine-induced arrhythmias. Ketamine: May result in seizures. Lithium: Aminophylline may reduce lithium levels. Nondepolarizing muscle relaxants: May antagonize neuromuscular blockade. INCOMPATIBILITIES: Do not mix with anileridine hydrochloride, ascorbic acid, chlorpromazine, codeine phosphate, dimenhydrinate, dobutamine hydroide, epinephrine, erythromycin gluceptate, hydralazine, insulin, levorphanol tartrate, meperidine, methadone, methicillin, morphine sulfate, norepinephrine bitartrate, oxytetracycline, penicillin G potassium, phenobarbital, phenytoin, prochlorperazine, promazine, promethazine, tetracycline, vancomycin, verapamil, vitamin B complex with vitamin C.

Drug Assesment ::

 Assessment/Interventions

  • Obtain patient history, including drug history and any known allergies. Note sensitivity to xanthines (eg, caffeine, chocolate), peptic ulcer, seizure disorders, liver disease and current medication regimen.
  • Take vital signs before and after administration.
  • Note baseline ECG.
  • Assess lung sounds.
  • Measure and record I&O.
  • Position patient with head of bed elevated or place in position of comfort to reduce dyspnea.
  • Encourage fluid intake to liquify bronchial secretions.
  • Reduce patient’s intake of cola, coffee, and chocolate and use of cigarettes.
  • Report carbohydrate or protein restrictions in patient’s diet because theophylline dosage may need to be adjusted.
  • Monitor vital signs and cardiac status. If significant tachycardia or ventricular arrhythmias occur, withhold drug and report to physician.
  • In patients receiving theophylline products, monitor serum theophylline levels for toxicity. If levels are above therapeutic range (10 to 20 mcg/ml), report to physician.
  • In patients receiving erythromycin, beta-blockers (eg, atenolol, metoprolol, nadolol, propanolol), cimetidine or allopurinol, monitor for toxicity.
  • In patients receiving phenobarbital, rifampin, carbamazepine or lithium, monitor effectiveness of aminophylline; dosage may not be sufficient.

Drug Storage/Management ::

 Administration/Storage

  • Store at room temperature.

Tablets and Liquid

  • Give on empty stomach (½ to 1 hr before meals or 2 hr after meals).
  • Do not crush or chew extended-release forms; capsules may be opened and contents mixed with soft food. Scored tablets can be cut in half and then swallowed.

IV Infusion

  • Do not administer if solution is discolored or if crystals are present.
  • Rapid infusion may cause cardiac arrest.
  • Give undiluted drug at rate of 25 mg/min.
  • Dilute in Dextrose or saline solutions or Lactated Ringer’s. Administer diluted drug at rate of 25 mg/min (maximum). Once mixed, solution must be refrigerated and used within 24 hr.
  • Use of infusion pump is recommended for precise administration.
  • Do not mix aminophylline solution in syringe with other drugs. Separate IV infusion is recommended because of IV incompatibilities.

Suppositories

  • Do not use rectal route when irritation or infection is present.
  • May have special storage requirements.

IM Injection

  • IM route is usually not used because this method produces intense prolonged pain.

Drug Notes ::

 Patient/Family Education

  • Advise patient not to smoke. If patient changes smoking habits or stops smoking, dosage adjustment may be necessary.
  • Instruct patient to report the following symptoms to physician: Unusual worsening of symptoms, nausea, vomiting, excessive nervousness, insomnia, irregular heartbeat.
  • For patients taking theophylline, emphasize that serum theophylline levels should be tested every 6 to 12 mo.
  • Advise elderly patients to take safety precautions (eg, rise slowly, use handrails, request assistance in ambulation) if dizziness occurs.
  • Instruct patient to avoid foods or beverages containing caffeine and to limit intake of charcoal-broiled foods.
  • Advise patient not to take otc cough, cold, or breathing medications without consulting physician.

Disclaimer ::

The Information available on this site is for only Informational Purpose , before any use of this information please consult your Doctor .Price of the drugs indicated above may not match to real price due to many possible reasons may , including local taxes etc.. These are only approximate indicative prices of the drug.

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