How to take good medical history & examination

Medical History — record the history as follows — In medical science The History taking is an art which comes by Experience examination main present complaints history of present illness previous history of illness [females] menstrual history family history previous treatment history social and occupation history psychiatric history, etc. systemic examination GIT,Abdomen,Pelvic systems  — pain– site, […]

Fever Common Causes And Treatment of Fever

 Fever  — Common Causes And Treatment Clinicians commonly refer to a febrile illness without an initially obvious etiology (sometimes called fever without localizing signs) Fever is an elevation in the core body temperature above the individuals normal range that occurs in conjunction with an increase in the hypothalamia temperature set point. Fever is defined as a […]

How to Cure Heart Block By Ayurvedic Medicine

How to Cure Heart Block By Ayurvedic Medicine :– भगवान न करे कि आपको कभी जिंदगी मे heart attack आए !लेकिन अगर आ गया तो आप जाएँगे डाक्टर के पास ! और आपको मालूम ही है एक angioplasty आपरेशन आपका होता है ! angioplasty आपरेशन मे डाक्टर दिल की नली मे एक spring डालते हैं […]

Thyroid Disorders Examination and Laboratory tests

Thyroid Disorders Thyroid gland produces 2 hormones – Thyroxine or T4 and Triiodothyronine or T3. Functions of the thyroid hormones are: · They help in cell differentiation · Maintain temperature and metabolism. Disorders of Thyroid are due to 1. Overproduction ofthyroid hormone – Thyrotoxi­cosis 2. Decreased production of thyroid hormone – Hy­pothyroidism 3. Thyroid -nodules […]

Some Important Values-Ideal Body Values

Some Important Values- Ideal Body Weight, Body Surface Area, Alveolar-Arterial Gradient, Creatinine Clearance Ideal Body Weight Most healthy infants and children grow in a predictable fashion, following a typical pattern of progression in weight, length, and head circumference. Growth velocity, the change in growth over time, is a more sensitive index of growth than is […]

Radiographic Basic views Posteroanterior PA view and Anteroposterior AP view

Radiographic x-ray Basic views (PA view) and (AP view) Basic views– There are mainly two basic type of x-ray view , Radiographic examination is the key to the diagnosis of many skeletal abnormalities, Obliteration of normal soft-tissue lines and the presence of a joint effusion are of particular importance, The radiographic findings are then correlated […]

CARDIAC IMAGING echocardiography 2D Echo

CARDIAC IMAGING Very useful.   2D Echo RV infarction: diagnosed by Echo Ventricular aneurysm Pericardial effusion y LV thrombus Wall motion abnormalities are seen Old scars can also cause WMA Decreased LV function is indication for ACE in­hibitor VSD MR is diagnosed easily.   dobutamine stress echocardiography: noninvasive test for coronary artery disease in which […]

Ischemia Myocardial ischemia(MI) ECG and effects of ischemia

Ischemia Types Effects of Ischemia, Myocardial ischemia(MI) ECG ,vertebrobasilar ischemia and other metabolic changes A temporary deficiency of blood flow to an organ or tissue, Normal muscle contraction and relaxation af­fected Angina pectoris has been considered the cardinal symptom of myocardial ischemia for more than two centuries.   LVF (left ventricular failure) Papillary muscle dysfunction […]

2D Echocardiography Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography

  2D echocardiography Doppler echocardiography A noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasound to visualize cardiac structures. Shows global or RWMA (Regional Wall Motion Abnor­mality) in infarction and ischemia. in which dobutamine is given to patients to increase the workload of the heart, and then the heart is evaluated with ultrasonic imaging.   Types of echocardiography […]

MYOCARDITIS Physical Examination Symptoms Clinical Manifestations Diagnosis

MYOCARDITIS CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS Diagnosis Signs and symptoms Myocarditis is a condition resulting from inflammation of the heart muscle. usually as a consequence of infections (e.g., viruses, Lyme disease, Lyme carditis ,rheumatic fever, trypanosomes, or toxoplasmosis) However, in contrast to adults, the majority of children with myocarditis present with acute or fulminant disease. Myocarditis is cardiac […]

Rheumatic Fever Causes of Rheumatic fever Diagnosis Rheumatic fever TREATMENT

Rheumatic Fever Signs and symptoms Diagnosis of Rheumatic fever Causes with treatment — Rheumatic fever is acute or first presentation of infection by Streptococcus leading to sore throat, fever, arthritis and/or carditis. A multisystem, febrile inflammatory disease that is a delayed complication of untreated group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Pharyngitis usually occurs two to four weeks […]


CONTRACEPTION ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS   Any process, device, or method that prevents conception. Categories of contraceptives include steroids; chemical; physical or barrier; combinations of physical or barrier and chemical; “natural”; abstinence; and permanent surgical procedures   1. COMBINED PILLS –   THE WIDELY USED TABLETS CONSIST OF TABLETS CONTAINING OESTROGEN AND PROGESTIN COMPOUNDS.IT IS THE […]

Trypanosomiasis Chagas’ disease Causes Diagnosis TREATMENT with Signs and Symptoms

Trypanosomiasis Chagas‘ disease Causes Diagnosis TREATMENT with Signs and Symptoms African trypanosomiasis — African sleeping sickness, caused by Trypanosoma gambiense, and American trypanosomiasis —A disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by the biting reduviid bug.   The protozoan Trypanosoma is the cause of Chagas’ disease and sleeping sickness. American trypanosomiasis or Chagas‘ disease is […]

Trichuris Trichura Whip Worm and Enterobius Vermicularis Pin Worm Diagnosis Treatment

TRICHURIS TRICHURA (WHIP WORM) ,ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS (PIN WORM OR THREAD WORM) Diagnosis and Treatment TRICHURIS TRICHURA (WHIP WORM) It is found worldwide. Two of the most common nematode infections worldwide are pinworm, which is caused by Enterobius vermicularis, and whipworm, which is caused by Trichuris trichiura Trichuris Trichura Whip Worm   Infective stage Trichuris Trichura […]

Cestodes Tape Worms Taenia Saginata & Solium cysticercii neurocysticercosis Diagnosis Treatment

  CESTODES (Tape Worms) TAENIA SAGINATA ,TAENIA SOLIUM ,Neurologic manifestations of cysticercii (neurocysticercosis) Tapeworms, or cestodes, are hermaphroditic flatworm parasites, which can live as parasitic adults in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage (metacestode) of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. A genus of tapeworms, parasitic flatworms belonging to the […]


Rickettsial Diseases ,ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER ,MEDITERRANEAN SPOTTED FEVER A genus of bacteria of the family Rickettsiaceae, order Rickettsiales. Their vectors are arthropods such as fleas, ticks, mites, and lice. They are obligate intracellular parasites (must be in living cells to reproduce) and are the causative agents of many diseases.   ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER   These […]

AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Diagnosis Signs and Symptoms with Treatment

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) Transmission of HIV Clinical features and Course of HIV infection AIDS is an advanced stage of HIV infection with symp­toms and opportunistic infections, with the CD4 cell count below 200 cells / IJL. Most AIDS patients are typical progressors and have a median survival time of 10 years. Some AIDS pa­tients may have […]

Infections PLAGUE Caused by Gram-Negative Yersinia pestis Species with diagnosis Treatment Signs

All about Bacterial Infections PLAGUE Caused by Gram–Negative Yersinia pestis SPECIES Gram–Negative Yersinia pestis SPECIES with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Any widespread contagious disease associated with a high death rate.  An often fatal disease caused by Yersinia pestis; the natural hosts are ground squirrels, wild rodents and rats, and the vector is the rat flea. Bacterial InfectionsPLAGUE […]

Infections CHOLERA Caused by Vibrio cholerae with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms

All about Bacterial Infections BRUCELLOSIS and CHOLERA Caused by Gram–Negative Vibrio cholerae Gram–Negative Vibrio cholerae with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms An acute infection involving the entire small intestine, marked by profuse, watery, secretory diarrhea. Without treatment, the severe loss of fluids and electrolytes can cause dehydration and vascular collapse. The incubation period is from a […]

HYPER ACIDITY Caused by H.pylori Gram-Negative diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by  HELICOBACTER PYLORI  Gram–Negative HELICOBACTER PYLORI with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION A motile, spiral, gram-negative bacterium that causes peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. It is treated with combined antibiotics and agents to block gastric acid secretion Helicobacter pylori, also known as H. pylori, is a bacterium that […]

Bacterial Infections DIPHTHERIA Causes Diagnosis Treatment with Signs and Symptoms

All about Bacterial Infections Caused by Gram-Positive Corynebacterium diphtheriae with diagnosis Treatment Signs and symptoms Diphtheria (from the Greek word for leather which refers to the tough pharyngeal membrane that is the clinical hallmark of infection) is an acute, communicable disease caused by the gram-positive bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The membrane is created by a thick, […]