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Fever Common Causes And Treatment of Fever

 Fever  — Common Causes And Treatment Clinicians commonly refer to a febrile illness without an initially obvious etiology (sometimes called fever without localizing signs) Fever is an elevation in the core body temperature above the individuals normal range that occurs in conjunction with an increase in the hypothalamia temperature set point. Fever is defined as a […]

Headache

Headaches I. Background of Headaches — Headache is one of the 20 most frequent reasons that cause patients to visit primary care providers in the United States. In a study of 20,468 patients, migraine headache, one of the common causes of recurrent headache, occurred one or more times yearly in 17.6% of women and in 5.7% […]

Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea is a subjective symptom  disorders that also cause vomiting. Vomiting can result from the stimulation of  four neurologic processes of Nausea and Vomiting — vagal and splanchnic fibers in the viscera, stimulated by distention,infection,or  inflammatory irritation,   vestibular system fibers mediated through muscarinic cholinergic and histamine H1 receptors, sounds, or emotions ,higher central nervous system (CNS) centers where […]

Fatigue diagnosis medicine and treatment

Fatigue — Postexertional malaise lasting >24 hours (1) €€€€—- €€==General considerations€€= Fatigue Fatigue is a very common complaint in the primary care office. It may be the primary cause for patient seeks care or a secondary complaint. We are all bothered by fatigue at some point . However, for maximmum of patients each year, it […]

Dizziness cause diagnosis treatment

Dizziness cause diagnosis treatment Dizziness Dizziness is a very common imprecise term often used by patients to describe any of a number of peculiar subjective symptoms. True vertigo, a sensation of irregular and whirling motion, is also included in a patent’s complaint to dizziness. Dizziness represents a disturbance in a patients is subjective to sensation […]

Insomnia sleep disorders Insomnia causes symptoms diagnosis with Insomnia treatment

Insomnia sleep disorders Insomnia causes symptoms diagnosis with Insomnia treatment The subjective experience of insufficient sleep or of sleep that is not refreshing Insomnia is defined as a persistent AND difficulty initiating  to maintaining sleep. Insomnia Insomnia   Insomnia can be a primary ;, however  insomnia is more commonly a secondary symptom to underlying the environmental, medical, some […]

How to take good medical history & examination

Medical History — record the history as follows — In medical science The History taking is an art which comes by Experience examination main present complaints history of present illness previous history of illness [females] menstrual history family history previous treatment history social and occupation history psychiatric history, etc. systemic examination GIT,Abdomen,Pelvic systems  — pain– site, […]

All Types of Fever

Definition of fever — fever is an increasing of body temperature above normal under the influence of thermo regulatory center. Abnormal elevation of temperature. The normal temperature taken orally ranges from about 97.6° to 99.6°F, although there is some individual variation. Rectal temperature is 0.5° to 1.0°F higher than oral temperature. thermometer normal body temp […]

Approach to Chest Pain Differential diagnosis of chest pain

Chest pain or chest discomfort  may occur due to some minor illness or may be due to some serous illness, or may be an emergency condition.   chest pain   Causes of serious chest pain – Acute ischemic heart disease, or aortic coronary syndrome, Aortic dissection, Tension pneumotherix, Pulmonary pneumothorex, Pulmonary embolism. The different condition […]

Diabetic Nephropathy and Renal complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus)

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) Renal Long-Term complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus) Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is responsible for high morbidity and mortality. DN is associated with diabetic retinopathy and hy­perglycemia. DN is due to the effect of growth factors, Angiotensin Il, endothelin, AGEs. A high body mass index (BMI) has been associated with an increased risk of […]

Ophthalmologic Complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus)

Chronic Long-Term Ophthalmologic Complications of DM (Diabetes Mellitus) Blindness – occurs due to progressive diabetic Ret­inopathy and macular oedema. Diabetic retinopathy may be non-proliferative and proliferative. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most important causes of visual loss worldwide, and is the principal cause of impaired vision in patients between 25 and 74 years […]

Some Facts about Glucocorticoid & Major side effects

Facts about Glucocorticoid & Hypermineralocorticoidism Major side effects Definition : [Gr. gleukos, sweet (new wine), + L. cortex, + Gr. eidos, form, shape] A general classification of adrenal cortical hormones that are primarily active in protecting against stress and in affecting protein and carbohydrate metabolism. The most important glucocorticoid is cortisol (hydrocortisone). Isolated glucocorticoid deficiency It […]

Pheochromocytoma Clinical Features Diagnosis Treatment

All about Pheochromocytoma Clinical Features Diagnosis Treatment Definition A tumor derived from neural crest cells of the sympathetic nervous system that is responsible for about 0.1% to 2% of all cases of hypertension. Catecholamine-secreting tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic ganglia are referred to as “pheochromocytomas” and “extra-adrenal […]

Sleep Disorders Types Diagnose Of Sleep Disorders

How to Diagnose Different Types of Sleep Disorders sleep disorder: Any condition that interferes with sleep, excluding environmental factors such as noise, excess heat or cold, movement (as on a train, bus, or ship), travel through time zones, or change in altitude. Classifies sleep disorders into eight major categories: Insomnia Sleep related breathing disorders Hypersomnias […]

Diabetes mellitus Types,Causes,Symptoms and Diagnosis

Diabetes mellitus Overview Types Causes,Symptoms with Diagnosis Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders with hyperglycemia. Glucose intolerance is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in glucose and fat metabolism. Overt diabetes is classified as type 1 (T1DM), type 2 (T2DM), and gestational (GDM) A chronic metabolic disorder marked by hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus (DM) […]

Metabolic,Insulin Resistance Syndrome X Causes Symptoms

INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROMES or Syndrome X Overview (metabolic syndrome)- consists of : Insulin resistance Hypertension Dyslipidemias Obesity – central Endothelial dysfunction Accelerated cardiovascular disease. The co-occurrence of metabolic risk factors for both type 2 diabetes and CVD (abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemias, and hypertension) suggested the existence of a “metabolic syndrome”  . A similar profile can […]

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Acute Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

ACUTE COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES MELLITUS (DKA) DKA is characterized by the triad of hyperglycemia, anion gap metabolic acidosis, and ketonemia. Metabolic acidosis is often the major finding. The serum glucose concentration is usually greater than 500 mg/dL (27.8 mmol/L) and less than 800 mg/dL (44.4 mmol/L)  . However, serum glucose concentrations may exceed 900 mg/dL […]

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS) Acute Complication Of DM

HYPERGLYCEMIC HYPEROSMOLAR STATE (HHS) hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS, also known as nonketotic hyperglycemia) and Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are of the most serious acute complications of diabetes. hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS, also called nonketotic hyperglycemia) In HHS, there is little or no ketoacid accumulation, the serum glucose concentration frequently exceeds 1000 mg/dL (56 mmol/L), the plasma […]

Chronic Long-term Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

CHRONIC COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES MEL­LITUS COMMON DISEASES DUE TO DM HYPERGLYCEMIA AND MICROVASCULAR DISEASE — Hyperglycemia is an important risk factor for the development of microvascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, as it is in patients with type 1 diabetes. Chronic Long-term complications result in morbidity and mor­tality. Children and adolescents with type 2 […]

Grave’s disease Causes and Treatment

Grave’s disease Grave’s disease is thyrotoxicosis, common in females, associated with high iodine intake, occurring between 20 – 50 years of age. Grave’s ophthalmopathy Besides the signs of thyrotoxicosis, there is Grave’s ophthalmopathy. decreased extraocular muscle mobility, and corneal injury, periorbital edema, periorbital and conjunctival inflammation, Ophthalmopathy associated with hyperthyroidism with the clinical characteristics of […]

Thyrotoxic crisis or Thyroid storm

Thyrotoxic crisis or thyroid storm It is a life-threatening hyperthyroidism with fever, seizures, coma, vomiting, diarrhoea, jaundice. A rare but often life-threatening medical emergency resulting from untreated hyperthyroidism Death can occur due to cardiac failure, arrhythmias, hyperthermia. Thyrotoxic crisis Symptoms include : — and fingernails may separate from the nail bed (Plummer’s nails). Cardiovascular findings […]

GREEN TEA Health Benefits

GREEN TEA The plant CAMELLIA SINENSIS is the source of leaves with which green tea is prepared .all green tea comes from this plant .the different varieties have been divided on the basis of their place of origin and appearance.   GREEN TEAORIGIN: China has been the leaders in terms of origin of green tea in the world […]

Thyroid Goiter

GOITER of THYROID Acute thyroiditis is an inflammatory condition of thy­roid due to suppurative infection. enlarged thyroid gland may be caused by thyroiditis, benign thyroid nodules, malignancy, iodine deficiency, or any condition that causes hyperfunction or hypofunction of the gland Types of GOITER aberrant goiter: A supernumerary goiter. acute goiter: A goiter that grows rapidly. […]

How to Manage Hay Fever at Home

Tips and Tricks for How to manage Hay Fever Common Symptoms of Hay Fever — Sneezing attacks, a streaming nose and itchy eyes are all symptoms of hay fever, which can plague thousands of people. If left untreated, hay fever can make the sufferer feel lousy.  sleep disorders due to difficulty in breathing. There is […]

Aldosteronism Clinical features Causes and Treatment

Aldosteronism   Clinical features Causes and Treatment definition Aldosteronism is a syndrome with hypersecretion of mineralocorticoid aldosterone. Primary aldosteronism is excessive aldosterone production due to disease of adrenal glands. It is also called nodular hyperplasia or idiopathic hyperaldos­teronism. Nonsuppressible (primary) hypersecretion of aldosterone is a underdiagnosed cause of hypertension. There is hypokalemia, diastolic hypertension, extra […]

Hyperthyroidism or THYROTOXICOSIS Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Thyrotoxicosis is a state of thyroid hormone excess. Hyperthyroidism is excessive thyroid function. Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis defines a spectrum of clinical findings consistent with thyroid hormone excess. Causes of Thyrotoxicosis Primary hyperthyroidism · Grave’s disease · Toxic multinodular goitre · Toxic adenoma · Thyroid carcinoma · Iodine excess (Jod-Basedow phenomenon) · Subacute thyroiditis · Drugs […]

Growth and Development Disorders GHD Diagnosis Treatment

DISORDERS OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Growth is dependent on GH, IGF, sex steroids, thy­roid hormones, paracrine growth factors and cytokines. Growth also requires caloric energy, amino acids, vi­tamins and trace metals. Short stature results due to intrinsic and extrinsic factors which impair growth. Growth  GHD Causes may be : Most common cause of GHD in children […]

Cushing’s Syndrome Symptoms Causes and Treatment

Cushing’s Syndrome Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Cushing’s disease is a hormone disorder caused by high levels of cortisol in the blood disease in which there is ex­cess ACTH secretion, by pituitary adenomas. Cushing’s syndrome is the signs and symptoms that result from prolonged exposure to excessive glucocorticoid hormones. Cushing’s disease: Cushing’s syndrome hormone disorder  […]

Diabetes Insipidus (DI) Causes Diagnosis and Treatment

Diabetes insipidus (DI) Disorders of Neurohypophysis  The neurohypophysis or posterior pituitary gland is made up of nerve tissues originating in su­praoptic and paraventricular nuclei of hypothala­mus. It produces 2 hormones: 1. AVP or arginine vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). 2. Oxytocin AVP acts on renal tubules to absorb the water back into the […]

SIADH or Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (AVP)

SIADH or Syndrome of inappropriate ADH (AVP) There is excessive secretion of AVP resulting in pas­sage of decreased volume of highly concentrated urine. There is water retention and decrease in plasma so­dium and plasma osmolarity. It is called dilutional hyponatraemia. It may be asymptomatic or there may be headache, confusion, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, coma and […]

Thyroid Disorders Examination and Laboratory tests

Thyroid Disorders Thyroid gland produces 2 hormones – Thyroxine or T4 and Triiodothyronine or T3. Functions of the thyroid hormones are: · They help in cell differentiation · Maintain temperature and metabolism. Disorders of Thyroid are due to 1. Overproduction ofthyroid hormone – Thyrotoxi­cosis 2. Decreased production of thyroid hormone – Hy­pothyroidism 3. Thyroid -nodules […]

HYPOTHYROIDISM Causes Diagnosis and Treatment

What is HYPOTHYROIDISM ? Hypothyroidism is a state of deficient function of the thyroid gland i.e. deficient secretion of thyroid hor­mones. In hypothyroidism normal thyroid hormone levels are maintained by a rise in TSH. This is called subclinical hypothyroidism. Later free T4 level falls and TSH levels rise further. This is the stage of clinical […]

Myxedema coma Diagnosis and Treatment

Myxedema coma  This is a state of hypothyroidism with altered con­sciousness or coma, sometimes seizures. There may be hypothermia. It is common in the elderly, and precipitated by seda-‘ tives, antidepressants, pneumonia, CHF, MI, cere­brovascular accidents. marked by neurological dysfunction, by respiratory depression, and by lowered body temperature, blood pressure, blood sugar, and serum sodium. […]

Porphyrias Inherited disorders Causes Classifications Diagnosis and Treatment

Porphyrias The porphyrias are inherited disorders. porphyrias are metabolic disorders caused by altered activities of enzymes within the heme biosynthetic pathway Acute intermittent porphyria: Pyrroloporphyria; neuropsychiatric–abdominal -Aminolevulinic aciduria; neuropsychiatric–abdominal Congenital erythropoietic porphyria: Günther disease; severe dermatologic Hereditary coproporphyria: Neuropsychiatric, occasionally dermatologic Other rare genetic variants reported Porphobilinogen synthetase deficiency: Porphyria cutanea tarda: Dermatologic Protoporphyria: Erythropoietic […]

Glycogen Storage Diseases von Gierke disease, Andersen’s disease, McArdle’s disease

Glycogen Storage Diseases Carbohydrate metabolism provides energy for meta­bolic functions of cell. Metabolism of glucose generates ATP by glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Any one of several heritable diseases characterized by the abnormal storage and accumulation of glycogen in the tissues, esp. in the liver Dietary sources of glucose: · Polysaccharide (starch) · Disacchride (lactose, maltose, […]

Diagnostic Methods in Ayurveda Trividh Pariksha

DIAGNOSTIC METHODS IN AYURVEDA (Ayurvedic Diagnosis) Trividh Pariksha (Darshan, Sparshan, Prashna). Dashavidh Rog and Rogi pariksha (CH.VI.8) Nidan Panchak. Shatkriyakal. Ashtavidh Rogi Pariksha,( including mala,mutra). Mrittikabhakshana in ‘Pandu’ Roga. 9548054700 Makshikosarpana to body, blood and urine in Madhumeha. Physical examination (rupa,rasa,gandha,sparsha) for body fluids like rakta,shukra, stanya,artava, mutra,sweda and kh-mala. Tailabindu pariksha. There were many […]

Biochemical analysis of Dosha Dhatu Mala In Ayurveda

BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DOSHA -DHATU-MALA INTRODUCTION n Ayruveda has taken rapid strides over the last decade in realizing people all over the world to probe into basics of physical and psychological heath related problems of fast changing life styles. Countries including India are once again recognizing the importance of science of life i.e Ayurveda and […]

Anterior Pituitary Hormones and Disorders

Disorders of Anterior PituitaryHormones The anterior pituitary is called the master gland be­ , it regulates the function of most other endocrine organs. The anterior pituitary gla’nd produces 6 major hor­mones. 1, Prolactin (PRL) 2. Growth hormone (GH) 3. Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) 4. Luteinizing hormone (LH) 5. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 6. Thyroid stimulating hormone […]

Hypopituitarism Diagnosis and Treatment

PRESENTATIONS OF HYPOPITUITARISM This depends on the hormones which are deficient. GH deficiency causes growth disorder and abnor­mal body structure. Gonadotrophin deficiency causes infertility, men­strual and sexual dysfunction and loss of secondary sexual characteristics in men. TSH and ACTH deficiency cause growth retarda­tion, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency. Mineralo­corticoid action is retained. PRL(prolactin) deficiency causes failure of […]

Hypothalamic, Pituitary And Other Sellar Masses

HYPOTHALAMIC, PITUITARY AND OTHER SELLAR MASSES Pituitary tumors , Pituitary adenomas   : Commonest tumors are pitu­itary adenomas. These are benign and their features depend on the cell type from which they occur. They may arise from PRL, GH, ACTH, TSH, LH and FSH producing cells r;esulting in features of hyperse­cretion of the hormones. There is autonomous […]

Chronic pancreatitis Causes Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment

Chronic pancreatitis Diseases Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment Chronic pancreatitis Pregentation · Abdominal pain · Steatorrhea. A form of pancreatitis that results from repeated or massive pancreatic injury, marked by the formation of scar tissue, which leads to malfunction of the pancreas Irreversible: Progressive destruction of the pancreas Results in both exocrine and endocrine deficiencies Pain, […]

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Diagnosis Symptoms and Treatment

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Diagnosis Symptoms and Treatment Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an au­toimmune disease of unknown etiology in which there is tissue damage by pathogenic antibod­ies. Multisystem autoimmune inflammatory disease characterized by fluctuating, chronic course; varies from mild to severe and may be life-threatening (CNS and renal forms) chronic […]

Rheumatoid Arthritis Causes Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment

Rheumatoid Arthritis Causes Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic multisystem disease. There are systemic manifestations. There is persistent inflammatory synovitis. chronic systemic disease marked by inflammation of multiple synovial joints,Involves peripheral joints symmetrically. There is damage of cartilage and bone. Patients typically complain of joint stiffness in the morning rather […]

Systemic Sclerosis Classification Prognosis and Complications

Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma) Systemic Sclerosis Classification Epidemiology Pathology Prognosis and Complications It is a chronic multisystem disorder. There is thickening of the skin due to accumula­tion of connective tissue affecting the structure and function of gastrointestinal system (GIT), lungs, heart, kidneys and other organs. There is vascular damage, and other immune processes resulting in damage […]

Systemic Sclerosis Diagnosis Symptoms Treatment Management

 Diagnosis Systemic Sclerosis — Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis [SSc]) is a chronic disease of unknown cause characterized by diffuse fibrosis of skin and visceral organs and vascular abnormalities History Raynaud phenomenon is frequently the initial complaint. Skin thickening, “puffy hands,” and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are often noted early in the disease process. Systemic Sclerosis Physical […]

Vasculitis Syndrome Causes Differential Diagnosis Symptoms and Treatment

Vasculitis Syndrome Vasculitis is a disease of blood vessels with in­flammation and damage. Vasculitis may be a disease of the blood vessels itself or it may be secondarily affected due to a systemic disease. destruction of blood vessel walls, with subsequent aneurysm formation, bleeding, thrombosis, or ischemia in the various vascular beds and organs Differential […]

Sarcoidosis Causes Diagnosis Symptoms and Treatment

Sarcoidosis It is a chronic, multisystem disorder of unknown cause. chronic multisystem disease of unknown etiology, characterized by noncaseating (hard) granulomas and lymphocytic alveol, Sarcoidosis is a noninfectious, multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown cause, commonly affecting young and middle-aged adults. Almost any other organ may be involved, including liver, spleen, lymph nodes, heart, and CNS. […]

Disease of Joints and Musculoskeletal Disorders OSTEOARTHRITIS and GOUT

Disease of Joints and Musculoskeletal Disorders OSTEOARIRITIS Also called degenerative joint disease. Hip osteoarthritis is more common in men and small joints and knee OA is more common in women. There is damage to cartilage, remodeling and hyper­trophy of bone. There is bone and muscle wasting. OSTEOARIRITIS Clinical Features · There is deep pain in […]