Details Descriptions About :: Hodgkin S Disease

 Hodgkin’s disease is a neoplastic disease characterized by painless, progressive enlargement of lymph nodes, spleen, and other lymphoid tissue resulting from proliferation of lymphocytes, histiocytes, eosinophils, and Reed-Sternberg giant cells. Untreated, Hodgkin’s disease follows a variable but relentlessly progressive and, ultimately, fatal course. With appropriate treatment, more than 80% of patients with stage I or II disease survive at least 10 years.

Causes for Hodgkin S Disease

Causes Unknown; however, viral etiology is suspected (Epstein-Barr virus is a leading candidate) Age Alert Hodgkin’s disease is most common in young adults, and more common in males than in females. Incidence peaks in two age-groups: ages 15 to 38 and after age 50—except in Japan, where it occurs exclusively among people over age 50.

Pathophysiology Hodgkin S Disease

Pathophysiology Hodgkin’s disease is characterized by proliferation of a tumor in which only a small proportion of the cells are malignant and most are normal lymphocytes. The characteristic malignant cells—called Reed-Sternberg cells—are most likely multinucleated, giant-cell mutations of the T-lymphocyte. Infiltration of the nodes with eosinophils and plasma cells is associated with lymph node necrosis and fibrosis.

Signs and symptoms Hodgkin S Disease

Signs and symptoms Painless swelling in one of lymph nodes (usually the cervical region) with a history of upper respiratory infection Persistent fever Night sweats Fatigue Weight loss Malaise Pruritus Extremity pain Nerve irritation Absence of pulse due to rapid enlargement of lymph nodes Pericardial friction rub Pericardial effusion Neck vein engorgement Enlargement of retroperitoneal nodes, spleen, and liver

Diagnostic Lab Test results

Diagnostic test results Lymph node biopsy confirms presence of Reed-Sternberg cells, nodular fibrosis, and necrosis. Bone marrow, liver, mediastinal, lymph node, and spleen biopsies reveal histologic presence of cells. Chest X-ray, abdominal computed tomography scan, lung scan, bone scan, and lymphangiography detect lymph and organ involvement. Hematologic tests show: mild to severe normocytic anemia normochromic anemia elevated, normal, or reduced white blood cell count differential with any combination of neutrophilia, lymphocytopenia, monocytosis, and eosinophilia. Elevated serum alkaline phosphatase indicates bone or liver involvement.

Treatment for Hodgkin S Disease

Treatment Chemotherapy, radiation, or both, appropriate to stage of the disease—based on histologic interpretation and clinical staging Concomitant antiemetics, sedatives, or antidiarrheals to combat adverse GI effects Autologous bone marrow transplant Autologous peripheral blood sternal transfusions Immunotherapy

 

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